Tronox Limited
Tronox Ltd (Form: 10-Q, Received: 05/04/2017 17:32:22)

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 

 
Form 10-Q
 

 
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from __________ to __________

1-35573
(Commission file number)
 


TRONOX LIMITED
(ACN 153 348 111)
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 
Western Australia, Australia
 
98-1026700
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

263 Tresser Boulevard, Suite 1100
Stamford, Connecticut 06901
 
Lot 22 Mason Road,
Kwinana Beach, WA 6167
Australia

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 705-3800
 

 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1)     has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2)     has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes       No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes       No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
       
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
       
Emerging growth company
   
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes       No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.     Yes       No 

As of April 28, 2017, the Registrant had 66,259,166 Class A ordinary shares and 51,154,280 Class B ordinary shares outstanding.
 


Table of Contents

 
Page
PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
3
 45
 57
 58
PART II – OTHER INFORMATION
 
 59
 59
 59
 59
 59
 59
 60
 61
 
2

I tem 1.
Financial Statements (Unaudited)

   
Page
No.
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
TRONOX LIMITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars, except share and per share data)

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Net sales
 
$
569
   
$
476
 
Cost of goods sold
   
479
     
455
 
Gross profit
   
90
     
21
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
(74
)
   
(50
)
Restructuring expense
   
     
(2
)
Income (loss) from operations
   
16
     
(31
)
Interest and debt expense, net
   
(46
)
   
(46
)
Gain on extinguishment of debt
   
     
4
 
Other expense, net
   
(6
)
   
(9
)
Loss before income taxes
   
(36
)
   
(82
)
Income tax provision
   
(2
)
   
(12
)
Net loss
   
(38
)
   
(94
)
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
   
3
     
(1
)
Net loss attributable to Tronox Limited
 
$
(41
)
 
$
(93
)
Loss per share, basic and diluted
 
$
(0.35
)
 
$
(0.80
)
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic and diluted (in thousands)
   
116,815
     
115,920
 

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
TRONOX LIMITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
 
   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Net loss
 
$
(38
)
 
$
(94
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
               
Foreign currency translation adjustments
   
24
     
53
 
Pension and postretirement plans, amortization of unrecognized actuarial losses, net of taxes of less than $1 million in each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016
   
1
     
1
 
Unrealized loss on derivative financial instruments (no tax impact, see Note 13)
   
(2
)
   
 
Other comprehensive income
   
23
     
54
 
Total comprehensive loss
   
(15
)
   
(40
)
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest:
               
Net income (loss)
   
3
     
(1
)
Foreign currency translation adjustments
   
6
     
13
 
Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest
   
9
     
12
 
Comprehensive loss attributable to Tronox Limited
 
$
(24
)
 
$
(52
)

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
TRONOX LIMITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars, except share and per share data)
 
   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
ASSETS
           
Current Assets
           
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
265
   
$
248
 
Restricted cash
   
2
     
3
 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts
   
428
     
424
 
Inventories, net
   
510
     
532
 
Prepaid and other assets
   
40
     
49
 
Total current assets
   
1,245
     
1,256
 
Noncurrent Assets
               
Property, plant and equipment, net
   
1,816
     
1,831
 
Mineral leaseholds, net
   
1,606
     
1,607
 
Intangible assets, net
   
217
     
223
 
Inventories, net
   
14
     
14
 
Other long-term assets
   
24
     
22
 
Total assets
 
$
4,922
   
$
4,953
 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
               
Current Liabilities
               
Accounts payable
 
$
198
   
$
181
 
Accrued liabilities
   
143
     
185
 
Short-term debt
   
150
     
150
 
Long-term debt due within one year
   
16
     
16
 
Income taxes payable
   
3
     
1
 
Total current liabilities
   
510
     
533
 
Noncurrent Liabilities
               
Long-term debt
   
2,887
     
2,888
 
Pension and postretirement healthcare benefits
   
120
     
122
 
Asset retirement obligations
   
74
     
73
 
Long-term deferred tax liabilities
   
155
     
152
 
Other long-term liabilities
   
32
     
32
 
Total liabilities
   
3,778
     
3,800
 
Contingencies and Commitments
               
Shareholders’ Equity
               
Tronox Limited Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.01 — 66,966,397 shares issued and 66,241,691 shares outstanding at March 31, 2017 and 65,998,306 shares issued and 65,165,672 shares outstanding at December 31, 2016
   
1
     
1
 
Tronox Limited Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.01 — 51,154,280 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016
   
     
 
Capital in excess of par value
   
1,536
     
1,524
 
Accumulated deficit
   
(66
)
   
(19
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
   
(480
)
   
(497
)
Total Tronox Limited shareholders’ equity
   
991
     
1,009
 
Noncontrolling interest
   
153
     
144
 
Total equity
   
1,144
     
1,153
 
Total liabilities and equity
 
$
4,922
   
$
4,953
 

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
TRONOX LIMITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities:
           
Net loss
 
$
(38
)
 
$
(94
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
               
Depreciation, depletion and amortization
   
61
     
55
 
Deferred income taxes
   
(1
)
   
(1
)
Share-based compensation expense
   
14
     
5
 
Amortization of deferred debt issuance costs and discount on debt
   
3
     
3
 
Pension and postretirement healthcare benefit expense
   
2
     
2
 
Gain on extinguishment of debt
   
     
(4
)
Other, net
   
7
     
15
 
Contributions to employee pension and postretirement plans
   
(5
)
   
(4
)
Changes in assets and liabilities:
               
(Increase) decrease in accounts receivable, net
   
(3
)
   
26
 
(Increase) decrease in inventories, net
   
26
     
36
 
(Increase) decrease in prepaid and other assets
   
9
     
3
 
Increase (decrease) in accounts payable and accrued liabilities
   
(17
)
   
(52
)
Increase (decrease) in taxes payable
   
2
     
11
 
Cash provided by operating activities
   
60
     
1
 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities:
               
Capital expenditures
   
(32
)
   
(33
)
Proceeds on sale of assets
   
     
1
 
Cash used in investing activities
   
(32
)
   
(32
)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities:
               
Repayments of debt
   
(4
)
   
(19
)
Dividends paid
   
(6
)
   
(30
)
Restricted stock and performance-based shares settled in cash for taxes
   
(2
)
   
 
Cash used in financing activities
   
(12
)
   
(49
)
Effects of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
   
1
     
3
 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
   
17
     
(77
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
   
248
     
229
 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 
$
265
   
$
152
 

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
TRONOX LIMITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF EQUITY
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
 
   
Tronox
Limited
Class A
Ordinary
Shares
   
Tronox
Limited
Class B
Ordinary
Shares
   
Capital in
Excess of
par Value
   
Accumulated
Deficit
   
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
   
Total
Tronox
Limited
Shareholders’
Equity
   
Non-
controlling
Interest
   
Total
Equity
 
Balance at January 1, 2017
 
$
1
   
$
   
$
1,524
   
$
(19
)
 
$
(497
)
 
$
1,009
   
$
144
   
$
1,153
 
Net loss
   
     
     
     
(41
)
   
     
(41
)
   
3
     
(38
)
Other comprehensive income
   
     
     
     
     
17
     
17
     
6
     
23
 
Share-based compensation
   
     
     
14
     
     
     
14
     
     
14
 
Shares cancelled
   
     
     
(2
)
   
     
     
(2
)
   
     
(2
)
Class A and Class B share dividends
   
     
     
     
(6
)
   
     
(6
)
   
     
(6
)
Balance at March 31, 2017
 
$
1
   
$
   
$
1,536
   
$
(66
)
 
$
(480
)
 
$
991
   
$
153
   
$
1,144
 

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
TRONOX LIMITED
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars, except share, per share and metric tons data or unless otherwise noted)

1.
The Company

Tronox Limited and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as “Tronox Limited,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) is a public limited company registered under the laws of the State of Western Australia. We are a global leader in the production and marketing of titanium bearing mineral sands and titanium dioxide (“TiO 2 ”) pigment, and the world’s largest producer of natural soda ash. Titanium feedstock is primarily used to manufacture TiO 2 . Zircon, a hard, glossy mineral, is used for the manufacture of ceramics, refractories, TV screen glass, and a range of other industrial and chemical products. Pig iron is a metal material used in the steel and metal casting industries to create wrought iron, cast iron, and steel. Our TiO 2 products are critical components of everyday applications such as paint and other coatings, plastics, paper, and other uses and our related mineral sands product streams include titanium feedstock, zircon, and pig iron. Our soda ash products are used by customers in the glass, detergent, and chemicals manufacturing industries.

We have global operations in North America, Europe, South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region. Within our TiO 2 segment, we operate three pigment production facilities at the following locations: Hamilton, Mississippi; Botlek, the Netherlands; and Kwinana, Western Australia, and we operate three separate mining operations: KwaZulu-Natal (“KZN”) Sands and Namakwa Sands both located in South Africa, and Cooljarloo located in Western Australia.

On February 21, 2017, Tronox Limited, The National Titanium Dioxide Company Ltd., a limited company organized under the laws of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“Cristal”), and Cristal Inorganic Chemicals Netherlands Coöperatief W.A., a cooperative organized under the laws of the Netherlands and a wholly owned subsidiary of Cristal (“Seller”), entered into a Transaction Agreement (the “Transaction Agreement”), pursuant to which we agreed to acquire Cristal’s titanium dioxide business for $1.673 billion in cash, subject to a working capital adjustment at closing (the “Cash Consideration”), plus 37,580,000 Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.01 per share, of Tronox Limited (the “Transaction”). Following the closing of the Transaction, the Seller will own approximately 24% of the outstanding ordinary shares (including both Class A and Class B) of Tronox Limited. Concurrently with this announcement, we expressed an intent to begin a process to market our Alkali business. In March 2017, we began to market the Alkali business as well as explore other asset sales and financing options. The Transaction is conditioned on us obtaining financing sufficient to fund the Cash Consideration, and the Transaction Agreement provides that we must pay to Cristal a termination fee of $100 million if all conditions to closing, other than the financing condition, have been satisfied and the Transaction Agreement is terminated because closing of the Transaction has not occurred by May 21, 2018. The Transaction is also conditioned upon the receipt of various regulatory approvals, including antitrust clearance in numerous jurisdictions. On April 13, 2017, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) issued a second request to us and Cristal in connection with its filing under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended, and the parties are cooperating to provide the information requested by the FTC as promptly as practicable. The Transaction, which has been unanimously approved by our Board of Directors, is expected to close during the first quarter 2018, subject to regulatory approvals and satisfaction of customary closing conditions, including the favorable vote of a majority of our outstanding shares.

On April 1, 2015 (the “Alkali Transaction Date”), we completed the acquisition of 100% of the Alkali Chemicals business (“Alkali”) from FMC Corporation (“FMC”) for an aggregate purchase price of $1.65 billion in cash (the “Alkali Transaction”). See Note 19 for additional information regarding the Alkali Transaction.

As a result of the Alkali Transaction, we produce natural soda ash from a mineral called trona, which we mine at two facilities we own near Green River, Wyoming. Our Wyoming facilities process the trona ore into chemically pure soda ash and specialty sodium products such as sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). We sell soda ash directly to customers in the United States (“U.S.”), Canada and Europe and to the American Natural Soda Ash Corporation (“ANSAC”), a non-profit foreign sales association in which we and two other U.S. soda ash producers are members, for resale to customers elsewhere around the world. We use a portion of our soda ash at Green River to produce specialty sodium products such as sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate that have uses in food, animal feed, pharmaceutical, and medical applications.
 
  In June 2012, Tronox Limited issued Class B ordinary shares (“Class B Shares”) to Exxaro Resources Limited (“Exxaro”) and one of its subsidiaries in consideration for 74% of Exxaro’s South African mineral sands business, and the existing business of Tronox Incorporated was combined with the mineral sands business in an integrated series of transactions whereby Tronox Limited became the parent company (the “Exxaro Transaction”). Exxaro has agreed not to acquire any voting shares of Tronox Limited if, following such acquisition, Exxaro will have a voting interest in Tronox Limited of 50% or more, unless Exxaro brings any proposal to make such an acquisition to the Board of Directors of Tronox Limited on a confidential basis. In the event an agreement regarding the proposal is not reached, Exxaro is permitted to make a takeover offer for all the shares of Tronox Limited not held by affiliates of Exxaro, subject to certain non-waivable conditions. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, Exxaro held approximately 44% of the voting securities of Tronox Limited. See Note 20 for additional information regarding Exxaro transactions. On March 8, 2017, Exxaro announced its intention to begin pursuing a path to monetize its ownership stake in Tronox over time. According to Exxaro’s announcement, any such monetization is expected to proceed in stages and would likely not begin until the second half of 2017.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited, and have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission regarding interim financial reporting. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for complete financial statements, and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2016 was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP.

In management’s opinion, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are of a normal recurring nature, considered necessary for a fair statement. Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of all majority-owned subsidiary companies. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. It is at least reasonably possible that the effect on the financial statements of a change in estimate due to one or more future confirming events could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Revision of Previously Issued Consolidated Financial Statements

During the first quarter of 2017, we identified a misstatement in our selling, general, and administrative expense for certain prior periods related to a liability resulting from a non-timely filing with a statutory authority. The aggregate misstatement is $11 million, which impacts our previously issued consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, balance sheets and cash flows as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, and the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the third and fourth quarters of 2015, and each quarter of 2016.
 
In accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 99, Materiality , and SAB No. 108, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements , management evaluated the materiality of the misstatement from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, and concluded that the misstatement was not material to our previously issued annual and interim financial statements. The cumulative amount of the prior period adjustments would have been material to our current statement of operations and comprehensive loss had we made the correction in the current period, and accordingly we will revise our previously issued financial statements to correct this misstatement.  In addition, we also corrected the timing of other previously recorded immaterial out-of-period adjustments and reflected them in the revised prior period financial statements.  The previously recorded immaterial out-of-period adjustments include a $6 million decrease to cost of goods sold due to an overstated depletion expense and a $7 million increase to cost of goods sold related to royalty tax that originated in 2013 and were previously recorded as an out-of-period correction in 2014; a $5 million decrease to cost of goods sold that originated in 2012 and was previously recorded as an out-of-period correction in 2014 due to overstated depletion expense; and other miscellaneous immaterial corrections.  Periods not presented herein will be revised, as applicable, in future filings.

The effects on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are as follows:

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations

   
Three Months Ended March 31, 2016
 
   
As Reported
   
Adjustment
   
Revised
 
Net sales  
$
475
   
$
1
 
 
$
476
 
Gross profit
   
20
     
1
     
21
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
(47
)
   
(3
)
   
(50
)
Loss from operations
   
(29
)
   
(2
)
   
(31
)
Loss before income taxes
   
(80
)
   
(2
)
   
(82
)
Net loss
   
(92
)
   
(2
)
   
(94
)
Net loss attributable to Tronox Limited
   
(91
)
   
(2
)
   
(93
)
Loss per share, basic and diluted
   
(0.78
)
   
(0.02
)
   
(0.80
)

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Loss

 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2016
 
 
As Reported
 
Adjustment
 
Revised
 
Net loss
 
$
(92
)
 
$
(2
)
 
$
(94
)
Total comprehensive loss
   
(38
)
   
(2
)
   
(40
)
Comprehensive loss attributable to Tronox Limited
   
(50
)
   
(2
)
   
(52
)
 
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet

   
December 31, 2016
 
   
As Reported
   
Adjustment
   
Revised
 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts
 
$
421
   
$
3
   
$
424
 
Total current assets
   
1,253
     
3
     
1,256
 
Total assets
   
4,950
     
3
     
4,953
 
Accrued liabilities
   
174
     
11
     
185
 
Total current liabilities     522       11       533  
Total liabilities
   
3,789
     
11
     
3,800
 
Accumulated deficit
   
(13
)
   
(6
)
   
(19
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
   
(495
)
   
(2
)
   
(497
)
Total Tronox Limited shareholders’ equity
   
1,017
     
(8
)
   
1,009
 
Total equity
   
1,161
     
(8
)
   
1,153
 
Total liabilities and equity
   
4,950
     
3
     
4,953
 

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows

The corresponding amounts have been revised within the statement of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2016 with no net impact to operating cash flows.
 
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”), which amends Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation . ASU 2016-09, simplifies various aspects related to how share-based payments are accounted for and presented in the financial statements including income taxes and forfeitures of awards. We adopted ASU 2016-09 during the first quarter of 2017. Its adoption did not have a material impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-05, Derivatives and Hedging: Effect of Derivative Contract Novations on Existing Hedge Accounting Relationships (“ASU 2016-05”), which clarifies that a change in the counterparty to a derivative instrument that has been designated as the hedging instrument in an existing hedging relationship would not, in and of itself, be considered a termination of the derivative instrument or a change in a critical term of the hedging relationship. As long as all other hedge accounting criteria in ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”) are met, a hedging relationship in which the hedging derivative instrument is novated would not be discontinued or require redesignation. This clarification applies to both cash flow and fair value hedging relationships. We adopted ASU 2016-05 during the first quarter of 2017. Its adoption did not have an impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

In July 2015, as part of its simplification initiative, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”). ASU 2015-11 simplifies the subsequent measurement of inventory by requiring entities to remeasure inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value, which is defined as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. We adopted ASU 2015-11 during the first quarter of 2017. The adoption of ASU 2015-11 did not have an impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Compensation-Retirement Benefits: Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (“ASU 2017-07”) which amends the requirements in ASC 715, Compensation — Retirement Benefits, which requires employers that sponsor defined benefit pension and/or other postretirement plans to aggregate the various components of net periodic benefit cost for presentation purposes but does not prescribe where they should be presented in the income statement. ASU 2017-07 requires employers to present the service cost component of the net periodic benefit cost in the same income statement line item(s) as other employee compensation costs arising from service rendered during the period. In addition, only the service cost component will be eligible for capitalization in assets. Employers will present the other components separately from the line item(s) that includes the service cost and outside of any subtotal of operating income, if one is presented. Employers will have to disclose the line item(s) used to present the other components of net periodic benefit cost, if the components are not presented separately in the income statement. ASU 2017-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of an annual period for which an entity’s financial statements (interim or annual) have not been issued. ASU 2017-07 requires the presentation of the components of net periodic benefit cost in the income statement retrospectively while the guidance limiting the capitalization of net periodic benefit cost in assets to the service component will be applied prospectively. We have not yet determined the impact, if any, that ASU 2017-07 will have on our consolidated financial statements.

 In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations   (Topic 805):   Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”), which clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist companies and other reporting organizations with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods. Early application of the amendments in ASU 2017-01 is allowed under certain circumstances. The amendments in ASU 2017-01 should be applied prospectively on or after the effective date. The impact, if any, that ASU 2017-01 will have on our consolidated financial statements will depend on the nature of future acquisitions of assets or businesses.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”), which requires that the reconciliation of the beginning-of-period and end-of period amounts shown in the statement of cash flows include restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents. ASU 2016-18 does not define restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents, but an entity will need to disclose the nature of the restrictions. ASU 2016-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The guidance should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-18 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory (“ASU 2016-16”), which reduces the complexity in the accounting standards by allowing the recognition of current and deferred income taxes for an intra-entity asset transfer, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. Historically, recognition of the income tax consequence was not recognized until the asset was sold to an outside party. This amendment should be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. ASU 2016-16 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within those annual reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an annual reporting period for which financial statements (interim or annual) have not been issued or made available for issuance. The impact, if any, that ASU 2016-16 will have on our consolidated financial statements will depend upon future intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory.
 
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”) which provides guidance intended to reduce diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted, provided that all of the amendments are adopted in the same period. The guidance requires application using a retrospective transition method. We have not yet determined the impact, if any, that ASU 2016-15 will have on our consolidated financial statements as it will depend on the nature of future cash flow transactions impacted by the new guidance.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires that entities use a current expected credit loss model which is a new impairment model based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. Under this model, an entity would recognize an impairment allowance equal to its current estimate of all contractual cash flows that the entity does not expect to collect from financial assets measured at amortized cost. The entity's estimate would consider relevant information about past events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. ASU 2016-13 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-13 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”) which includes a lessee accounting model that recognizes two types of leases - finance leases and operating leases. The standard requires that a lessee recognize on the balance sheet assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. The recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee will depend on its classification as a finance or an operating lease. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The new standard must be adopted using a modified retrospective transition, and provides for certain practical expedients. Transition will require application of the new guidance at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented. We have developed an implementation plan for adopting ASU 2016-02, which includes utilizing a software program to manage our lease obligations. We are evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements and have concluded that we will not early adopt ASU 2016-02. Refer to Note 14 and 17 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 regarding current obligations under lease agreements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) which states that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 also requires several new disclosures. This guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted, and may be applied either retrospectively or on a modified retrospective basis. Subsequent to the issuance of the May 2014 guidance, several clarifications and updates have been issued on this topic, the most recent of which was issued in February 2017. We have developed an implementation plan for adopting ASU 2014-09 and are currently operating in line with that plan. We are evaluating the impact, if any, that ASU 2014-09, and any amendments thereto, will have on our consolidated financial statements. We concluded that we will not early adopt this guidance and have tentatively concluded to apply the modified retrospective basis approach to ASU 2014-09.
 
2.
Restructuring Expense

In March 2017, our Alkali business announced a cost improvement initiative which focused on process improvements at our Wyoming facility (the “Wyoming Restructure”). During the three months ended March 31, 2017, we recorded $1 million of restructuring costs related to the Wyoming Restructure, which was recorded in “Restructuring expense” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, we recorded a reversal of restructuring expense of $1 million pursuant to the settlement of claims previously filed relating to a prior restructure.

During 2015, we commenced a global restructuring of our TiO 2 segment (the “Global TiO2 Restructure”) which we completed in 2016. This action resulted in a charge, consisting of employee severance and associated costs, of $14 million, which was recorded in “Restructuring expense” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 of which $2 million was paid during 2015.   During the three months ended March 31, 2016, we recorded an additional charge related to our Global TiO 2 Restructure consisting of employee severance cost of $2 million which was recorded in “Restructuring expense” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and made cash payments of $11 million. We paid the remaining $3 million during the second and third quarters of 2016.

As part of our cost improvement initiative, in November 2015 we ceased production at our sodium chlorate plant in Hamilton, Mississippi, the “Sodium Chlorate Plant Restructure” which was completed in 2016. This action resulted in a charge, consisting primarily of employee severance costs, of $4 million, which was recorded in “Restructuring expense” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 of which $1 million was paid during 2015. During the three months ended March 31, 2016, we made cash payments of $2 million. The remaining $1 million liability was paid in 2016.

The cumulative amount incurred to date relating to the Global TiO2 Restructure, the Sodium Chlorate Plant Restructure and the Wyoming Restructure is $16 million, $4 million and $1 million, respectively.

A summary in the changes in the liability established for restructuring, which is included in “Accrued liabilities” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, is as follows:

   
2017
   
2016
 
Balance, January 1,
 
$
   
$
15
 
Restructuring expense
   
     
2
 
Cash (payments) receipts
   
1
     
(13
)
                 
Balance, March 31,
 
$
1
   
$
4
 

Restructuring expense by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 was as follows:

   
Three
 Months
 Ended
 March 31,
2017
   
Three
 Months
 Ended
 March 31,
 2016
 
TiO 2
 
$
 
 
$
1
 
Alkali
   
1
     
 
Corporate
   
(1
)
   
1
 
Total
 
$
   
$
2
 
 
3.
Income Taxes

Our operations are conducted through our various subsidiaries in a number of countries throughout the world. We have provided for income taxes based upon the tax laws and rates in the countries in which operations are conducted and income is earned.

   
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Income tax provision
 
$
(2
)
 
$
(12
)
Loss before income taxes
 
$
(36
)
 
$
(82
)
Effective tax rate
   
(6
)%
   
(15
)%

During the fourth quarter of 2016, we implemented various steps of an internal corporate restructuring plan to simplify our corporate, finance and legal structure and thereby improve operational, administrative, and commercial synergies within each of our operating segments (the “Corporate Reorganization”). As a result of this Corporate Reorganization, we reduced our cross jurisdictional financing arrangements during 2016; therefore, the period ended March 31,2017 is not impacted by withholding tax accruals on interest income. In connection with the Corporate Reorganization during the period ended March 31, 2017, Tronox Limited became managed and controlled in the United Kingdom (“U.K”), with no additional impacts to the consolidated provision for income taxes due to the valuation allowances in various jurisdictions.

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, Tronox Limited, the public parent which is registered under the laws of the State of Western Australia, became managed and controlled in the U.K. The statutory tax rate in the U.K. at March 31, 2017 was 20%. During 2016, Tronox Limited was taxable only in Australia with a statutory tax rate of 30%.

The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2017 differs from the U.K. statutory rate of 20% primarily due to valuation allowances and income in foreign jurisdictions taxed at rates lower than 20%. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2016 differs from the Australian statutory rate of 30% primarily due to valuation allowances, income in foreign jurisdictions taxed at rates lower than 30%, and withholding tax accruals on interest income . The income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2017 differs from the income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2016 primarily due to withholding tax accruals on interest income which were made during 2016.
 
The statutory tax rates in various countries where subsidiaries of Tronox Limited have operations are different than both the U.K. and the Australian tax rates. Tax rates in the U.S. (35% for corporations), South Africa (28% for limited liability companies), the Netherlands (25% for corporations), Switzerland (8.5% for corporations) and Jersey, U.K. (0% for corporations) all impact our effective tax rate.

We continue to maintain full valuation allowances related to the total net deferred tax assets in Australia, the Netherlands, and the U.S., as we cannot objectively assert that these deferred tax assets are more likely than not to be realized. Future provisions for income taxes will include no tax benefits with respect to losses incurred and tax expense only to the extent of current state tax payments until the valuation allowances are eliminated. Additionally, we have valuation allowances against specific tax assets in South Africa, and we have now established a valuation allowance against an immaterial deferred tax asset from a tax loss in the U.K . which we do not expect to utilize.

These conclusions were reached by the application of ASC 740, Income Taxes , which require all available positive and negative evidence be weighted to determine whether a valuation allowance should be recorded. The more significant evidential matter in Australia, the U.S., and The Netherlands, and the U.K. relates to recent book losses and the lack of sufficient projected taxable income. The more significant evidential matter for South Africa relates to assets that cannot be depleted or depreciated for tax purposes and capital gains tax losses which we do not expect to utilize.
 
Anadarko Litigation

On January 23, 2015, Anadarko Petroleum Corp. (“Anadarko”) paid $5.2 billion, including approximately $65 million of accrued interest, pursuant to the terms of a settlement agreement with Tronox Incorporated. We did not receive any portion of the settlement amount. Instead, 88% of the $5.2 billion went to trusts and other governmental entities for the remediation of polluted sites by Kerr-McGee Corporation (“Kerr-McGee”). The remaining 12% was distributed to a tort trust to compensate individuals injured as a result of Kerr-McGee’s environmental failures.

We received a private letter ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service confirming that the trusts that held the claims against Anadarko are grantor trusts of Tronox Incorporated solely for federal income tax purposes. As a result, we believe we are entitled to tax deductions equal to the amount spent by the trusts to remediate environmental matters and to compensate the injured individuals. These deductions will accrue over the life of the trusts as the $5.2 billion is spent. We believe that these expenditures and the accompanying tax deductions may continue for years. At December 31, 2014, we had recorded deferred tax assets of $2.0 billion related to the $5.2 billion of expected future tax deductions from trust expenditures.  These deferred tax assets were fully offset by valuation allowances. At March 31, 2017, approximately $2.8 billion of the trust expenditures expected from the litigation proceeds have been incurred.

4.
Loss Per Share

The computation of basic and diluted loss per share for the periods indicated is as follows:

   
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Numerator – Basic and Diluted:
           
Net loss
 
$
(38
)
 
$
(94
)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
   
3
     
(1
)
Undistributed net loss
   
(41
)
   
(93
)
Percentage allocated to ordinary shares (1)
   
100
%
   
100
%
Net loss available to ordinary shares
 
$
(41
)
 
$
(93
)
Denominator – Basic and Diluted:
               
Weighted-average ordinary shares (in thousands)
   
116,815
     
115,920
 
Net loss per Ordinary Share (2 ) :
               
Basic and diluted net loss per ordinary share
 
$
(0.35
)
 
$
(0.80
)


(1)
Our participating securities do not have a contractual obligation to share in losses; therefore, when we have a net loss, none of the loss is allocated to participating securities. Consequently, for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, the two class method did not have an effect on our net loss per ordinary share calculation, and as such, dividends paid during the year did not impact this calculation.

(2)
Net loss per ordinary share amounts were calculated from exact, not rounded net loss and share information.
 

In computing diluted net loss per share under the two-class method, we considered potentially dilutive shares. Anti-dilutive shares not recognized in the diluted net loss per share calculation were as follows:

   
March 31, 2017
   
March 31, 2016
 
   
Shares
   
Average
 Exercise Price
   
Shares
   
Average
 Exercise Price
 
Options
   
1,936,618
     
21.17
     
2,078,556
   
$
21.16
 
Series A Warrants
   
1,432,622
     
8.51
     
1,438,289
   
$
8.55
 
Series B Warrants
   
1,942,323
     
9.37
     
1,947,234
   
$
9.43
 
Restricted share units
   
6,965,668
     
10.69
     
5,700,695
   
$
7.28
 

5.
Accounts Receivable, Net of Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, consisted of the following:

   
March 31,
 2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Trade receivables
 
$
413
   
$
408
 
Other
   
17
     
18
 
Subtotal
   
430
     
426
 
Allowance for doubtful accounts
   
(2
)
   
(2
)
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts
 
$
428
   
$
424
 

Bad debt expense was less than $1 million for each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, and was recorded in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

6.
Inventories, Net

Inventories, net consisted of the following:

   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Raw materials
 
$
193
   
$
194
 
Work-in-process
   
35
     
41
 
Finished goods, net
   
191
     
204
 
Materials and supplies, net (1)
   
105
     
107
 
Total
   
524
     
546
 
Less: Inventories, net – non-current
   
(14
)
   
(14
)
Inventories, net - current
 
$
510
   
$
532
 
 

(1)
Consists of processing chemicals, maintenance supplies, and spare parts, which will be consumed directly and indirectly in the production of our products.

Finished goods include inventory on consignment of $23 million and $24 million at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, inventory obsolescence reserves primarily for materials and supplies were $17 million. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, reserves for lower of cost or market were $24 million and $26 million, respectively.
 
7.
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net

Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation, consisted of the following:

   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Land and land improvements
 
$
159
   
$
159
 
Buildings
   
314
     
309
 
Machinery and equipment
   
1,916
     
1,888
 
Construction-in-progress
   
143
     
146
 
Other
   
52
     
50
 
Total
   
2,584
     
2,552
 
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization
   
(768
)
   
(721
)
Property, plant and equipment, net (1)
 
$
1,816
   
$
1,831
 
 

(1)
Substantially all of these assets are pledged as collateral for our debt. See Note 11.

Depreciation expense related to property, plant and equipment during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 was $46 million and $39 million, respectively, of which $45 million and $38 million, respectively, was recorded in “Cost of goods sold” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and $1 million in each of the periods was recorded in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

8.
Mineral Leaseholds, Net

Mineral leaseholds, net of accumulated depletion, consisted of the following:

   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Mineral leaseholds
 
$
2,005
   
$
1,996
 
Less accumulated depletion
   
(399
)
   
(389
)
Mineral leaseholds, net
 
$
1,606
   
$
1,607
 

Depletion expense related to mineral leaseholds during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 was $9 million and $10 million, respectively, which was recorded in “Cost of goods sold” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

9.
Intangible Assets, Net

Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization, consisted of the following:

   
March 31, 2017
   
December 31, 2016
 
   
Gross
Cost
   
Accumulated
Amortization
   
Net Carrying
Amount
   
Gross
Cost
   
Accumulated
Amortization
   
Net Carrying
Amount
 
Customer relationships
 
$
291
   
$
(120
)
 
$
171
   
$
291
   
$
(115
)
 
$
176
 
TiO 2 technology
   
32
     
(10
)
   
22
     
32
     
(9
)
   
23
 
Internal-use software
   
45
     
(21
)
   
24
     
45
     
(21
)
   
24
 
Intangible assets, net
 
$
368
   
$
(151
)
 
$
217
   
$
368
   
$
(145
)
 
$
223
 

Amortization expense related to intangible assets during each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 was $6 million, of which $6 million and $5 million, respectively, was recorded in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. During the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, less than $1 million and $1 million, respectively, of amortization expense was recorded in “Cost of goods sold” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. Estimated future amortization expense related to intangible assets is $19 million for the remainder of 2017, $25 million for each of the years from 2018 through 2021and $98 million thereafter.
 
10.
Accrued Liabilities

Accrued liabilities consisted of the following:

   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Employee-related costs and benefits
 
$
63
   
$
83
 
Restructuring costs
   
1
     
 
Interest
   
10
     
35
 
Sales rebates
   
19
     
25
 
Taxes other than income taxes
   
7
     
10
 
Professional fees and other
   
43
     
32
 
Accrued liabilities
 
$
143
   
$
185
 

11.
Debt

Our short-term debt consisted of a UBS Revolver, defined below, and was $150 million at both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016. The average effective interest rates of our UBS Revolver were 4.6% and 3.9% during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

UBS Revolver

On June 18, 2012, we entered into a global senior secured asset-based syndicated revolving credit facility with UBS AG (“UBS”) with a maturity date of June 18, 2017 (the “UBS Revolver”). Through March 31, 2015, the UBS Revolver provided us with a committed source of capital with a principal borrowing amount of up to $300 million, subject to a borrowing base.

On April 1, 2015, in connection with the Alkali Transaction, we entered into an amended and restated asset-based revolving syndicated facility agreement with UBS, which provides for up to $500 million of revolving credit lines, with a $85 million sublimit for letters of credit, with a new maturity that is the earlier of the date which is five years after the closing date and the date which is three months prior to the maturity of the Term Loan, defined below. Availability of revolving credit loans and letters of credit are subject to a borrowing base. Borrowings bear interest at our option, at either a base rate or an adjusted London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as the greatest of (a) the Administrative Agent’s prime rate, (b) the Federal funds effective rate plus 0.50% and (c) the adjusted LIBOR for a one-month period plus 1.00%. The applicable margin ranges from 0.50% to 1.00% for borrowings at the base rate and from 1.50% to 2.00% for borrowings at the adjusted LIBOR, in each case, based on the average daily borrowing availability.

On April 1, 2015, we borrowed $150 million against the UBS Revolver, which was outstanding at both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016. During each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 we had no drawdowns or repayments on the UBS Revolver. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, our amount available to borrow was $198 million and $190 million, respectively.

ABSA Revolving Credit Facility

We have a R1.3 billion (approximately $97 million at March 31, 2017) revolving credit facility with ABSA Bank Limited (“ABSA Revolver”) acting through its ABSA Capital Division with a maturity date of June 14, 2017 (the “ABSA”). The ABSA Revolver bears interest at (i) the base rate (defined as one month Johannesburg Interbank Agreed Rate, which is the mid-market rate for deposits in South African Rand, for a period equal to the relevant period which appears on the Reuters Screen SAFEY Page alongside the caption YLD) as of 11h00 Johannesburg time on the first day of the applicable period, plus (ii) the Margin, which is 3.9%.
 
During each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we had no drawdowns or repayments on the ABSA Revolver. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, there were no outstanding borrowings on the ABSA Revolver.

Long-term debt, net of an unamortized discount and debt issuance costs, consisted of the following:

   
Original
Principal
   
Annual
Interest Rate
 
Maturity
Date
 
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Term Loan, net of unamortized discount (1)
 
$
1,500
   
Variable
 
3/19/2020
 
$
1,437
   
$
1,441
 
Senior Notes due 2020
 
$
900
     
6.375
%
8/15/2020
   
896
     
896
 
Senior Notes due 2022
 
$
600
     
7.50
%
3/15/2022
   
584
     
584
 
Lease financing
                     
19
     
19
 
Total borrowings under long-term debt
                     
2,936
     
2,940
 
Less: Long-term debt due within one year
                     
(16
)
   
(16
)
Debt issuance costs
                     
(33
)
   
(36
)
Long-term debt
                      
$
2,887
   
$
2,888
 


(1)
Average effective interest rate of 5.0% and 4.9% during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

At March 31, 2017, the scheduled maturities of total borrowings under our long-term debt were as follows:

   
Total
Borrowings
 
2017
 
$
12
 
2018
   
16
 
2019
   
16
 
2020
   
2,298
 
2021
   
1
 
Thereafter
   
597
 
Total
   
2,940
 
Remaining accretion associated with the Term Loan
   
(4
)
Total borrowings under long-term debt
 
$
2,936
 
Term Loan

On March 19, 2013, we, along with our wholly owned subsidiary, Tronox Pigments (Netherlands) B.V., and certain of our subsidiaries named as guarantors, entered into a Second Amended and Restated Credit and Guaranty Agreement (the “Second Agreement”) with Goldman Sachs Bank USA, as administrative agent and collateral agent, and Goldman Sachs Bank USA, UBS Securities LLC, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC and RBC Capital Markets, as joint lead arrangers, joint bookrunners and co-syndication agents. Pursuant to the Second Agreement, we obtained a $1.5 billion senior secured term loan (the “Term Loan”). The Term Loan was issued net of an original issue discount. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the unamortized discount was $4 million and $5 million, respectively. We made principal repayments during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 of $4 million and $3 million, respectively.
 
On April 23, 2014, we, along with our wholly owned subsidiary, Tronox Pigments (Netherlands) B.V., and certain of our subsidiaries named as guarantors, entered into a Third Amendment to the Credit and Guaranty Agreement (the “Third Agreement”) with the lender parties thereto and Goldman Sachs Bank USA, as administrative agent, which amends the Second Agreement. The Third Agreement provides for the re-pricing of the Term Loan by replacing the existing definition of “Applicable Margin” with a grid pricing matrix dependent upon our public corporate family rating as determined by Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s (with the interest rate under the Third Agreement remaining subject to Eurodollar Rate and Base Rate floors, as defined in the Third Agreement). Pursuant to the Third Agreement, based upon our current public corporate family rating by Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s, the current interest rate per annum is 350 basis points plus LIBOR (subject to a LIBOR floor of 1% per annum) compared to 350 basis points plus LIBOR (subject to a LIBOR floor of 1% per annum) in the Second Agreement. The Third Agreement also amended certain provisions of the Second Agreement to permit us and certain of our subsidiaries to obtain new cash flow revolving credit facilities in place of our existing asset based revolving credit facility. The maturity date under the Second Agreement and all other material terms of the Second Agreement remain the same under the Third Agreement. Debt issuance cost related to the Term Loan of $15 million was recorded as a direct reduction to the carrying value of the long-term debt as described below.

Senior Notes due 2020

On August 20, 2012, our wholly owned subsidiary, Tronox Finance LLC (“Tronox Finance”), completed a private placement offering of $900 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes at par value (the “Senior Notes due 2020”). The Senior Notes due 2020 bear interest semiannually at a rate equal to 6.375%, and are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior, unsecured basis by us and certain of our subsidiaries. The Senior Notes due 2020 were initially offered to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and outside the United States to non-U.S. persons pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. Debt issuance costs related to the Senior Notes Due 2020 of $9 million were recorded as a direct reduction to the carrying value of the long-term debt as described below.

On September 17, 2013, Tronox Finance issued $900 million in aggregate principal amount of registered 6.375% Senior Notes due 2020 in exchange for its then existing $900 million in aggregate principal amount of its 6.375% Senior Notes due 2020. The Senior Notes due 2020 are guaranteed by Tronox and certain of its subsidiaries. See Note 22. There were no repayments during the three months ended March 31, 2017. During the three months ended March 31, 2016, we repurchased $4 million of face value of notes at a price of 77% of par, resulting in a net gain of approximately $1 million which was included in “Gain on extinguishment of debt” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

Senior Notes due 2022

On March 6, 2015, Evolution Escrow Issuer LLC (“Evolution”), a special purpose limited liability company organized under the laws of Delaware, was formed. Evolution was wholly owned by Stichting Evolution Escrow, a Dutch foundation not affiliated with the Company

On March 19, 2015, Evolution closed an offering of $600 million aggregate principal amount of its 7.50% Senior Notes due 2022 (the “Senior Notes due 2022”). The Senior Notes due 2022 were offered and sold by Evolution in reliance on an exemption pursuant to Rule 144A and Regulation S under the Securities Act. The Senior Notes due 2022 were issued under an Indenture, dated as of March 19, 2015 (the “Indenture”), between Evolution and Wilmington Trust, National Association (the “Trustee”).

On April 1, 2015, in connection with the Alkali Transaction, Evolution merged with and into Tronox Finance, Tronox Finance assumed the obligations of Evolution under the Indenture and the Senior Notes due 2022, and the proceeds from the offering were released to us to partially pay the purchase price for the Alkali Transaction. We and certain of our subsidiaries entered into a supplemental indenture (the “First Supplemental Indenture”), by and among us, Tronox Finance, the guarantors party thereto, and the Trustee, pursuant to which we and such subsidiaries became guarantors of the Senior Notes due 2022 under the Indenture. The Senior Notes due 2022 have not been registered under the Securities Act, and may not be offered or sold in the U.S. absent registration or an applicable exemption from registration requirements. There were no repayments during the three months ended March 31, 2017. During the three months ended March 31, 2016, we repurchased $16 million of face value of notes at a price of 76% of par, resulting in a net gain of approximately $3 million which was included in “Gain on extinguishment of debt” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
 
The Indenture and the Senior Notes due 2022 provide, among other things, that the Senior Notes due 2022 are senior unsecured obligations of Tronox Finance. Interest is payable on March 15 and September 15 of each year beginning on September 15, 2015 until their maturity date of March 15, 2022. The terms of the Indenture, among other things, limit, in certain circumstances, the ability of us to: incur certain additional indebtedness and issue preferred stock; make certain dividends, distributions, investments and other restricted payments; sell certain assets; incur liens; agree to any restrictions on the ability of certain subsidiaries to make payments to the Company; consolidate or merge with or into, or sell substantially all of our assets to, another person; enter into transactions with affiliates; and enter into new lines of business. Debt issuance costs related to the Senior Notes due 2022 of $9 million were recorded as a direct reduction of the carrying value of the long-term debt as described below.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of March 31, 2017, we had $198 million available under the $500 million UBS Revolver, $97 million available under the ABSA Revolver and $265 million in cash and cash equivalents.

Lease Financing

We have capital lease obligations in South Africa, which are payable through 2031 at a weighted average interest rate of approximately 14%. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, assets recorded under capital lease obligations were $21 million. Related accumulated amortization was $7 million and $6 million at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. During each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we made principal payments of less than $1 million.

Fair Value

Our debt is recorded at historical amounts. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the fair value of the Term Loan was $1.5 billion. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the fair value of the Senior Notes due 2020 was $903 million and $841 million, respectively. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the fair value of the Senior Notes due 2022 was $605 million and $544 million, respectively. We determined the fair value of the Term Loan, the Senior Notes due 2020 and the Senior Notes due 2022 using quoted market prices. The fair value hierarchy for the Term Loan, the Senior Notes due 2020 and the Senior Notes due 2022 is a Level 1 input. Balances outstanding under our UBS Revolver are carried at contracted amounts, which approximate fair value based on the short term nature of the borrowing and the variable interest rate. The fair value hierarchy for our UBS Revolver is a Level 2 input.

Debt Covenants

At March 31, 2017, we had financial covenants in the UBS Revolver, the ABSA Revolver and the Term Loan; however, only the ABSA Revolver had a financial maintenance covenant that applies to local operations and only when the ABSA Revolver is drawn upon. The Term Loan and the UBS Revolver are subject to an intercreditor agreement pursuant to which the lenders’ respective rights and interests in the security are set forth. We were in compliance with all our financial covenants as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2017.
 
Interest and Debt Expense, Net

Interest and debt expense, net in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations consisted of the following:

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Interest on debt
 
$
43
   
$
44
 
Amortization of deferred debt issuance costs and discounts on debt
   
3
     
3
 
Capitalized interest
   
(1
)
   
(1
)
Other
   
1
     
 
Total interest and debt expense, net
 
$
46
   
$
46
 

In connection with obtaining debt, we incurred debt issuance costs, which are being amortized through the respective maturity dates using the effective interest method. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had deferred debt issuance costs of $3 million and $4 million, respectively, related to the UBS Revolver and ABSA Revolvers which are recorded in “Other long-term assets” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and $33 million and $36 million at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, of Term Loan, Senior Notes due 2020 and Senior Notes due 2022, which were recorded as a direct reduction of the carrying value of the long-term debt.

12.
Asset Retirement Obligations

Asset retirement obligations consist primarily of rehabilitation and restoration costs, landfill capping costs, decommissioning costs, and closure and post-closure costs. Activity related to asset retirement obligations was as follows:

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Balance, January 1,
 
$
76
   
$
81
 
Accretion expense
   
1
     
1
 
Remeasurement/translation
   
3
     
4
 
Changes in estimates, including cost and timing of cash flows
   
     
1
 
Settlements/payments
   
(1
)
   
 
Balance, March 31,
 
$
79
   
$
87
 

Asset retirement obligations were classified as follows:

   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Current portion included in “Accrued liabilities”
 
$
5
   
$
3
 
Noncurrent portion included in “Asset retirement obligations”
   
74
     
73
 
Asset retirement obligations
 
$
79
   
$
76
 

Environmental Rehabilitation Trust

In accordance with applicable regulations, we have established an environmental rehabilitation trust for the prospecting and mining operations in South Africa, which receives, holds, and invests funds for the rehabilitation or management of asset retirement obligations. The trustees of the fund are appointed by us, and consist of sufficiently qualified employees capable of fulfilling their fiduciary duties. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the environmental rehabilitation trust assets were $14 million and $13 million, respectively, which were recorded in “Other long-term assets” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
 
13.
Derivative Instruments

We manufacture and market our products in a number of countries throughout the world and, as a result, are exposed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly in South Africa, Australia, and the Netherlands. Costs in South Africa and Australia are primarily incurred in local currencies, while the majority of revenues are in U.S. dollars. In Europe, the majority of revenues and costs are in the local currency. This leaves us exposed to movements in the South African Rand and the Australian dollar versus the U.S. dollar.

Our businesses rely on natural gas as one of the main fuel sources in our production process. Natural gas prices have historically been volatile. Natural gas prices could increase as a result of reduced domestic drilling and production activity. Drilling and production operations are subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws and government regulations, which could directly curtail such activity or increase the cost of drilling, resulting in reduced levels of drilling activity and therefore increased natural gas prices. This exposes us to commodity price risk.

We mitigate our exposures to currency risks and commodity price risks, through a controlled program of risk management that includes the use of derivative financial instruments. We enter into foreign exchange forward contracts to reduce the effects of fluctuating foreign currency exchange rates. We also use commodity price swap contracts and forward purchase contracts to manage forecasted energy exposure.

We formally document all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking our hedge transactions. This process includes relating derivatives that are designated as cash flow hedges to specific assets and liabilities on the balance sheet or to specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions. We also formally assess, both at the inception of the hedge and throughout its term, whether each derivative is highly effective in offsetting changes in cash flows of the hedged item. If we determine that a derivative is not highly effective as a hedge, or if a derivative ceases to be a highly effective hedge, we discontinue hedge accounting with respect to that derivative prospectively. On the date the derivative instrument is entered into, we assess whether to designate the derivative as a hedge of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a forecasted transaction (cash flow hedge) or not. We recognize all derivatives in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value.

We have designated our natural gas commodity price swap contracts, which qualify as cash flow hedges, for hedge accounting treatment under ASC 815.   We perform an analysis for effectiveness of the derivatives at the end of each quarter based on the terms of the contract and the underlying item being hedged. The effective portion of the change in the fair value of cash flow hedges is deferred in other comprehensive loss and is subsequently recognized in “Cost of goods sold” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for commodity hedges, when the hedged item impacts earnings. Any portion of the change in fair value of derivatives designated as hedging instruments that is determined to be ineffective is recorded in “Other income (expense), net” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we recorded the fair value of the natural gas hedge of $1 million and $3 million, respectively in “Prepaid and other assets” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, with the offset of $2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2017 of unrealized gain recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss, with no tax impact, which is expected to be reclassified as earnings within the next nine months. See Note 3 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. The current open commodity contract hedges forecasted transactions until December 31, 2017. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had an equivalent of 3.8 MMBTUs (millions of British Thermal Units) and 4.8 MMBTUs, respectively, in aggregate notional volume of outstanding natural gas commodity forward contract to hedge forecasted purchases. The fair value of the natural gas commodity price contract was based on market price quotations and the use of a pricing model. The contract was considered a level 2 input in the fair value hierarchy at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016.
 
14.
Commitments and Contingencies

Purchase and Capital Commitments —At March 31, 2017, purchase commitments were $115 million for the remainder of 2017, $77 million for 2018, $50 million for 2019, $42 million for 2020, $26 million for 2021 and $134 million thereafter.

Letters of Credit —At March 31, 2017, we had outstanding letters of credit, bank guarantees, and performance bonds of $60 million, of which $35 million were letters of credit issued under the UBS Revolver, $18 million were bank guarantees and letters of credit issued by ABSA, $5 million were bank guarantees issued by Standard Bank and $2 million were performance bonds issued by Westpac Banking Corporation.

Other Matters From time to time, we may be party to a number of legal and administrative proceedings involving legal, environmental, and/or other matters in various courts or agencies. These proceedings, individually and in the aggregate, may have a material adverse effect on us. These proceedings may be associated with facilities currently or previously owned, operated or used by us and/or our predecessors, some of which may include claims for personal injuries, property damages, cleanup costs, and other environmental matters. Current and former operations may also involve management of regulated materials that are subject to various environmental laws and regulations including the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or state equivalents. Similar environmental laws and regulations and other requirements exist in foreign countries in which we operate. Currently, we are not party to any pending legal or administrative proceedings that may have a material adverse effect, either individually or in the aggregate, on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

15.
Shareholders’ Equity

The changes in outstanding Class A ordinary shares (“Class A Shares”) and Class B ordinary shares (“Class B Shares”) for the three months ended March 31, 2017 were as follows:

Class A Shares:
     
Balance at January 1, 2017
   
65,165,672
 
Shares issued for share-based compensation
   
1,160,133
 
Shares issued upon warrants exercised
   
16,329
 
Shares issued cancelled for share-based compensation
   
(100,443
)
Balance at March 31, 2017
   
66,241,691
 
Class B Shares:
       
Balance at both March 31, 2017and December 31, 2016
   
51,154,280
 

Warrants

We have outstanding Series A Warrants (the “Series A Warrants”) and Series B Warrants (the “Series B Warrants”), together (the “Warrants”). At March 31, 2017, holders of the Series A Warrants and the Series B Warrants were entitled to purchase 6.02 and 6.03 of Class A Shares, respectively, and receive $12.50 in cash at an exercise price of $51.21 for each Series A Warrant and $56.51 for each Series B Warrant. The Warrants have a seven-year term from the date initially issued and will expire on February 14, 2018. A holder may exercise the Warrants by paying the applicable exercise price in cash or exercising on a cashless basis. The Warrants are freely transferable by the holder. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, there were 237,977 and 239,306 Series A Warrants outstanding, respectively, and 322,110 and 323,915 Series B Warrants outstanding, respectively.
 
Dividends

During 2017, we declared and paid quarterly dividends to holders of our Class A Shares and Class B Shares as follows:

     
Q1 2017
 
Dividend per share
 
$
0.045
 
Total dividend
 
$
6
 
Record date (close of business)
 
March 6
 

During 2016, we declared and paid quarterly dividends to holders of our Class A Shares and Class B Shares as follows:

     
Q1 2016
 
Dividend per share
 
$
0.25
 
Total dividend
 
$
30
 
Record date (close of business)
 
March 4
 

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss Attributable to Tronox Limited

The tables below present changes in accumulated other comprehensive loss by component for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016.

   
Cumulative
Translation
Adjustment
   
Pension
Liability
Adjustment
   
Unrealized
Gains (Losses) on
Derivatives
   
Total
 
Balance, January 1, 2017
 
$
(408
)
 
$
(92
)
 
$
3
   
$
(497
)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
   
18
     
     
(2
)
   
16
 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss
   
     
1
     
     
1
 
                                 
Balance, March 31, 2017
 
$
(390
)
 
$
(91
)
 
$
1
   
$
(480
)

   
Cumulative
Translation
Adjustment
   
Pension
Liability
Adjustment
   
Unrealized
Gains (Losses) on
Derivatives
   
Total
 
Balance, January 1, 2016
 
$
(496
)
 
$
(102
)
 
$
-—
   
$
(598
)
Other comprehensive income
   
40
     
     
     
40
 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss
   
     
1
     
     
1
 
                                 
Balance, March 31, 2016
 
$
(456
)
 
$
(101
)
 
$
-—
   
$
(557
)

16.
Noncontrolling Interest

Exxaro has a 26% ownership interest in each of our Tronox KZN Sands (Pty) Ltd. and Tronox Mineral Sands (Pty) Ltd. subsidiaries in order to comply with the ownership requirements of the Black Economic Empowerment legislation in South Africa. Exxaro is entitled to exchange this interest for approximately 3.2% in additional Class B Shares under certain circumstances. Exxaro also has a 26% ownership interest in certain of our other non-operating subsidiaries. We account for such ownership interest as “Noncontrolling interest” in the consolidated financial statements.
 
Noncontrolling interest activity was as follows:

   
2017
   
2016
 
Balance, January 1
 
$
144
   
$
112
 
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
   
3
     
(1
)
Effect of exchange rate changes
   
6
     
13
 
Balance, March 31
 
$
153
   
$
124
 

17.
Share-Based Compensation

Compensation expense consisted of the following:

 
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
Restricted shares and restricted share units
 
$
14
   
$
4
 
Options
   
     
1
 
Total compensation expense
 
$
14
   
$
5
 

Tronox Limited Management Equity Incentive Plan (“MEIP”)

On June 15, 2012, we adopted the Tronox Limited Management Equity Incentive Plan (the “MEIP”), which permits the grant of awards that are comprised of incentive options, nonqualified options, share appreciation rights, restricted shares, restricted share units, performance awards, and other share-based awards, cash payments, and other forms as the compensation committee of the Board of Directors (the “Board”) in its discretion deems appropriate, including any combination of the above. Subject to further adjustment, the maximum number of shares which may be the subject of awards (inclusive of incentive options) is 20,781,225 Class A Shares. These shares were increased by 8,000,000 on the affirmative vote of our shareholders on May 25, 2016.

Restricted Shares

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, we did not grant any restricted shares. Our restricted shares vest ratably over a three-year period, are classified as equity awards and are accounted for using the fair value established at the grant date.

The following table presents a summary of activity for the three months ended March 31, 2017:

   
Number of
Shares
   
Weighted Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
 
Outstanding, January 1, 2017
   
284,400
   
$
6.09
 
Vested
   
(107,928
)
   
8.00
 
Outstanding, March 31, 2017
   
176,472
   
$
4.92
 
Expected to vest, March 31, 2017
   
176,472
   
$
4.92
 

At March 31, 2017, there was $1 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to nonvested restricted shares, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.5 years. Since the restricted shares were granted to certain members of our Board as indicated above, the unrecognized compensation expense was not adjusted for estimated forfeitures. The total fair value of restricted shares that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2017 was $1 million.
Restricted Share Units (“RSUs”)
 
During the three months ended March 31, 2017, we granted RSUs which have time and/or performance conditions. Both the time-based awards and the performance-based awards are classified as equity awards. For the time-based awards, 100,160 RSUs vest ratably over a one-year period and 773,774 RSUs vest ratably over a three-year period, and are valued at the weighted average grant date fair value. For the performance-based awards, 773,774 cliff vest at the end of the three years and 883,538 cliff vest at the end of forty months. Included in the performance-based awards are 773,774 RSUs for which vesting is determined by a Total Stockholder Return (“TSR”) calculation over the applicable measurement period. The TSR metric is considered a market condition for which we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the grant date fair value. The 883,538 RSUs were granted, at a grant date fair value of $19.47, to certain executive officers pursuant to an Integration Incentive Award program (the “Integration Incentive Award”) in connection the Cristal Transaction. If the Cristal Transaction does not close by July 1, 2018, then the Integration Incentive Award granted will be forfeited.

The following table presents a summary of activity for the three months ended March 31, 2017:
 
   
Number of
Shares
   
Weighted Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
 
Outstanding, January 1, 2017
   
5,587,331
   
$
7.19
 
Granted
   
2,531,246
     
17.72
 
Vested
   
(1,052,205
)
   
8.74
 
Forfeited
   
(100,704
)
   
13.54
 
Outstanding, March 31, 2017
   
6,965,668
   
$
10.69
 
Expected to vest, March 31, 2017
   
7,539,300
   
$
10.02
 

At March 31, 2017, there was $49 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to nonvested RSUs, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.3 years. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of RSUs granted during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 was $17.72 per share and $4.06 per share, respectively. The total fair value of RSUs that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2017 was $9 million.

Options

The following table presents a summary of activity for the three months ended March 31, 2017:

   
Number of
Options
   
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
   
Weighted
Average
Contractual
Life (years)
   
Intrinsic
Value
 
Outstanding, January 1, 2017
   
1,970,481
   
$
21.19
     
6.38
   
$
 
Forfeited
   
(2,285
)
   
21.98
                 
Expired
   
(31,578
)
   
22.44
                 
Outstanding, March 31, 2017
   
1,936,618
   
$
21.17
     
6.13
   
$
 
Expected to vest, March 31, 2017
   
2,557
   
$
27.26
     
7.48
   
$
 
Exercisable, March 31, 2017
   
1,934,029
   
$
21.16
     
6.13
   
$
 

The aggregate intrinsic values in the table represent the total pre-tax intrinsic value (the difference between our share price at the indicated dates and the options’ exercise price, multiplied by the number of in-the-money options) that would have been received by the option holders had all option holders exercised their in-the-money options at the end of the period. The amount will change based on the fair market value of our stock. No options were exercised during the three months ending March 31, 2017 and 2016 and consequently, there was no related intrinsic value . We issue new shares upon the exercise of options. Since no stock options were exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, no cash was received.
 
At March 31, 2017 there was no unrecognized compensation expense related to options, adjusted for estimated forfeitures. We did not issue any options d uring the three months ended March 31, 2017.

The fair value is based on the closing price of our Class A Shares on the grant date. The risk-free interest rate is based on U.S. Treasury Strips available with a maturity period consistent with the expected life assumption. The expected volatility assumption is based on historical price movements of our peer group. Dividend yield is determined based on the Company’s expected dividend payouts.

T-Bucks Employee Participation Plan (“T-Bucks EPP”)

During 2012, we established the T-Bucks EPP for the benefit of certain qualifying employees of our South African subsidiaries. We funded the T-Bucks Trust (the “Trust”) with R124 million (approximately $15 million), which was used to acquire Class A Shares. Additional contributions may be made in the future at the discretion of the Board. The T-Bucks EPP is classified as an equity-settled shared-based payment plan, whereby participants were awarded share units in the Trust, which entitles them to receive Class A Shares upon completion of the vesting period on May 31, 2017. Participants are entitled to receive dividends on the shares during the vesting period. Forfeited shares are retained by the Trust, and are allocated to future participants. Compensation costs are recognized over the vesting period using the straight-line method. During 2012, the Trust purchased 548,234 Class A Shares at $25.79 per share, which was the fair value on the date of purchase. The balance at both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 was 548,234 shares.

Long-Term Incentive Plan (“LTIP”)

We have a LTIP for the benefit of certain qualifying employees of Tronox subsidiaries in South Africa and Australia. The LTIP is classified as a cash-settled compensation plan and is re-measured to fair value at each reporting date. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the LTIP plan liability was less than $1 million.
 
18.
Pension and Other Postretirement Healthcare Benefits

We sponsor two noncontributory defined benefit retirement plans in the United States, the qualified retirement plan and Alkali qualified retirement plan (the “U.S. Defined Benefit Plans”). We also have a collective defined contribution plan (a multiemployer plan) in the Netherlands, and a postretirement healthcare plan in South Africa. We had a defined benefit retirement plan in the Netherlands which was settled in the fourth quarter of 2016.

The components of net periodic cost associated with our U.S. Defined Benefit Plans and the Netherlands defined benefit plan recognized in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations were as follows:

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Net periodic cost:
           
Service cost
 
$
1
   
$
1
 
Interest cost
   
4
     
5
 
Expected return on plan assets
   
(4
)
   
(5
)
Net amortization of actuarial losses
   
1
     
1
 
Total net periodic cost
 
$
2
   
$
2
 

The components of net periodic cost associated with the postretirement healthcare plan for each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 were less than $1 million.
 
For each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we contributed $1 million to the Netherlands multiemployer plan, which was recognized in “Selling general and administrative expense” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations.

19.
Acquisition of Alkali Chemicals Group

On April 1, 2015, we acquired Alkali because it diversifies our end markets and revenue base, and increases our participation in faster growing emerging market economies. We believe it also provides us greater opportunity to utilize a portion of our U.S. tax attributes in future periods. See Note 3 for a discussion of the tax impact of the Alkali Transaction. We accounted for the Alkali Transaction using the acquisition method under ASC 805, Business Combinations , which requires recording assets acquired and liabilities assumed at fair value. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the assets acquired and liabilities assumed were recorded based on their estimated fair values on the Alkali Transaction Date. The results of the Alkali chemical business are included in the Alkali segment. The valuations were derived from estimated fair value assessments and assumptions used by management.
 
We funded the Alkali Transaction through existing cash and new debt. See Note 11 for further details of the Alkali Transaction financing.

Purchase Price Allocation

   
Valuation
 
Consideration:
     
Purchase price
 
$
1,650
 
         
Fair Value of Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed:
       
Current Assets:
       
Accounts receivable
 
$
147
 
Inventories
   
48
 
Prepaid and other assets
   
32
 
Total Current Assets
   
227
 
         
Property, plant and equipment (1)
   
767
 
Mineral leaseholds (2)
   
739
 
Other long-term assets
   
3
 
         
Total Assets
 
$
1,736
 
         
Current Liabilities:
       
Accounts payable
   
46
 
Accrued liabilities
   
28
 
Total Current Liabilities
   
74
 
         
Noncurrent Liabilities:
       
Other
   
12
 
         
Total Liabilities
   
86
 
         
Net Assets
 
$
1,650
 


(1)
The fair value of property, plant and equipment was determined using the cost approach, which estimates the replacement cost of each asset using current prices and labor costs, less estimates for physical, functional and technological obsolescence, based on the estimated useful life ranging from 5 to 38 years

(2)
The fair value of mineral rights was determined using the Discounted Cash Flow method, which was based upon the present value of the estimated future cash flows for the expected life of the asset taking into account the relative risk of achieving those cash flows and the time value of money. A discount rate of 10.4% was used taking into account the risks associated with such assets.

There were no contingent liabilities currently recorded in the fair value of net assets acquired as of the Alkali Transaction Date, and the fair value of net assets acquired includes accounts receivables with book value that approximates fair value.
 
20.
Related Parties

Exxaro

We have service level agreements with Exxaro for research and development that expire in 2017. Such service level agreements amounted to less than $1 million of expense during each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, which was included in “Selling, general and administrative expense” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Additionally, we had a professional service agreement with Exxaro related to the Fairbreeze construction project which ended in January 2017. During the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we paid less than $1 million and $1 million, respectively, to Exxaro, which was capitalized in “Property, plant and equipment, net” in our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had less than $1 million of related party payables, which were recorded in “Accounts payable” in our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.

ANSAC

We hold a membership in ANSAC, which is responsible for promoting exports of US-produced soda ash. Under the ANSAC membership agreement, Alkali’s exports of soda ash to all markets except Canada, the European community, the European Free Trade Association and the Southern African Customs Union are exclusively through ANSAC. Certain sales and marketing costs incurred by ANSAC are charged directly to us. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations include amounts charged to us by ANSAC principally consisting of salaries, benefits, office supplies, professional fees, travel, rent and certain other costs, amounted to $1 million for each of three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016. During the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we recorded net sales to ANSAC of $75 million and $60 million, respectively, which was included in “Net sales” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had $57 million and $60 million, respectively, of related party receivables from ANSAC, which were recorded in “Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts” in our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had related party payables due to ANSAC of $1 million, recorded in “Accounts payable” in our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Additionally, during the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, “Cost of goods sold” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations included less than $1 million and $2 million, respectively, of charges to us by ANSAC, for freight costs incurred on our behalf. At March 31, 2017, “Accounts payable” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets included less than $1 million of payables to ANSAC for freight costs incurred on our behalf and we did not have a liability for such costs to ANSAC at December 31, 2016.

Natron X Technologies LLC

In connection with the Alkali Transaction, we acquired FMC’s one-third ownership interest in a joint venture, Natron x Technologies LLC “Natron x ”. Natron x manufactures and markets sodium-based, dry sorbents for air pollution control in electric utility and industrial boiler operations. Pursuant to an agreement with Natron x , we purchase ground trona from a third-party vendor as an agent on its behalf (the “Supply Agreement”). We also provide certain administrative services such as accounting, technology and customer services to Natron x under a service level agreement (the “SLA”). We are reimbursed by Natron x for the related costs incurred under the Supply Agreement and the SLA. At March 31, 2017, we did not have an outstanding receivable related to these agreements and less than $1 million of such receivables at December 31, 2016, which were recorded in “Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
 
On June 30, 2016 Natron x ceased its operations and ended deliveries of products to its customers. In September of 2016, the Natron x Board of Directors approved the demolition of the plant located at Alkali’s Westvaco facility and other costs associated with dissolving the joint venture. At both March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, a reserve of $1 million, representing our one-third share of the estimated expenses related to the termination of the Natron x business, including severance and other exit activities, was included in “Accrued Liabilities” in our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. We do not expect to incur any additional future expenses related to the termination of the Natron x business.

21.
Segment Information

The reportable segments presented below represent our operating segments for which separate financial information is available and which is utilized on a regular basis by our Chief Executive Officer, who is our chief operating decision maker, to assess performance and to allocate resources.

Our TiO 2 operating segment includes the following:

exploration, mining, and beneficiation of mineral sands deposits;

production of titanium feedstock (including chloride slag, slag fines, and rutile), pig iron, and zircon;

production and marketing of TiO 2 ; and

electrolytic manganese dioxide manufacturing and marketing.

Our Alkali operating segment includes the mining of trona ore for the production from trona of natural soda ash and its derivatives: sodium bicarbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate and caustic soda (collectively referred to as “alkali-products”).

Segment performance is evaluated based on segment operating income (loss), which represents the results of segment operations before unallocated costs, such as general corporate expenses not identified to a specific segment, interest expense, other income (expense), net and income tax expense or benefit.

Net sales and income (loss) from operations by segment were as follows:

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
TiO 2 segment
 
$
378
   
$
285
 
Alkali segment
   
191
     
191
 
Net sales
 
$
569
   
$
476
 
TiO 2 segment
 
$
32
   
$
(36
)
Alkali segment
   
19
     
21
 
Corporate
   
(35
)
   
(16
)
Income (loss) from operations
   
16
     
(31
)
Interest and debt expense, net
   
(46
)
   
(46
)
Gain on extinguishment of debt
   
     
4
 
Other income (expense), net
   
(6
)
   
(9
)
Loss before income taxes
   
(36
)
   
(82
)
Income tax provision
   
(2
)
   
(12
)
Net loss
 
$
(38
)
 
$
(94
)
 
Net sales to external customers, by geographic region, based on country of production, were as follows:

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
U.S. operations
 
$
349
   
$
310
 
International operations:
               
Australia
   
94
     
76
 
South Africa
   
74
     
37
 
The Netherlands
   
52
     
53
 
Total net sales
 
$
569
   
$
476
 

Net sales from external customers for each similar product were as follows:

   
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Pigment
 
$
272
   
$
216
 
Alkali
   
191
     
191
 
Titanium feedstock
   
92
     
57
 
Electrolytic
   
14
     
12
 
Total net sales
 
$
569
   
$
476
 

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, our ten largest third-party TiO 2 customers and our ten largest Alkali customers represented approximately 25% and 22%, respectively, of our consolidated net sales. During the three months ended March 31, 2016, our ten largest third-party TiO 2 customers and our ten largest Alkali customers represented approximately 20% and 25%, respectively, of our consolidated net sales. During each of the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, ANSAC accounted for 13% of our consolidated net sales.

Capital expenditures by segment were as follows:

 
Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
   
2017
 
2016
 
TiO 2 segment
 
$
20
   
$
17
 
Alkali segment
   
12
     
16
 
Total
 
$
32
   
$
33
 

Total assets by segment were as follows:

   
March 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
TiO 2 segment
 
$
2,970
   
$
2,991
 
Alkali segment
   
1,645
     
1,671
 
Corporate
   
307
     
291
 
Total
 
$
4,922
   
$
4,953
 
 
22.
Guarantor Condensed Consolidating Financial Statements

The obligations of Tronox Finance, our wholly-owned subsidiary, under the Senior Notes due 2020 are fully and unconditionally (subject to certain customary circumstances providing for the release of a guarantor subsidiary) guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis, jointly and severally, by Tronox Limited (referred to for purposes of this note only as the “Parent Company”) and each of its current and future restricted subsidiaries, other than excluded subsidiaries, that guarantee any indebtedness of the Parent Company or its restricted subsidiaries (collectively, the “Guarantor Subsidiaries”). The Subsidiary Issuer, Tronox Finance, and each of the Guarantor Subsidiaries are 100% owned, directly or indirectly, by the Parent Company. Our subsidiaries that do not guarantee the Senior Notes due 2020 are referred to as the “Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries.” The guarantor condensed consolidating financial statements presented below presents the statements of operations, statements of comprehensive income (loss), balance sheets and statements of cash flow data for: (i) the Parent Company, the Guarantor Subsidiaries, the Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries, and the subsidiary issuer, on a consolidated basis (which is derived from Tronox historical reported financial information); (ii) the Parent Company, alone (accounting for our Guarantor Subsidiaries, the Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries, and Tronox Finance on an equity basis under which the investments are recorded by each entity owning a portion of another entity at cost, adjusted for the applicable share of the subsidiary’s cumulative results of operations, capital contributions and distributions, and other equity changes); (iii) the Guarantor Subsidiaries alone; (iv) the Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries alone; and (v) the subsidiary issuer, Tronox Finance.

The guarantor condensed consolidating financial statements are presented on a legal entity basis, not on a business segment basis. The indenture governing the Senior Notes due 2020 provides for a Guarantor Subsidiary to be automatically and unconditionally released and discharged from its guarantee obligations in certain customary circumstances, including:

Sale or other disposition of such Guarantor Subsidiary’s capital stock or all or substantially all of its assets and all of the indenture obligations (other than contingent obligations) of such Subsidiary Guarantor in respect of all other indebtedness of the Subsidiary Guarantors terminate upon the consummation of such transaction;

Designation of such Guarantor Subsidiary as an “unrestricted subsidiary” under the indenture;

In the case of certain Guarantor Subsidiaries that incur or guarantee indebtedness under certain credit facilities, upon the release or discharge of such Guarantor Subsidiary’s guarantee or incurrence of indebtedness that resulted in the creation of such guarantee, except a discharge or release as a result of payment under such guarantee;
 
Legal defeasance, covenant defeasance, or satisfaction and discharge of the indenture obligations;

Payment in full of the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding Senior Notes due 2020 and all other obligations under the indenture; or

Release or discharge of the Guarantor Subsidiary’s guarantee of certain other indebtedness.

At December 31, 2016, certain entities which were created as part of the Corporate Reorganization were designated as non-guarantor entities. As of and during the three months ended March 31, 2017, pursuant to the Seventh Supplemental Indenture, dated as of February 14, 2017, to the Indenture, dated August 20, 2012 among Tronox Finance LLC, as Issuer, Tronox Limited as Parent, the guarantors named therein and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee, these entities have been designated as guarantor entities. Consequently, the unaudited guarantor condensed consolidating financial information for these entities has been revised, retrospectively, to reflect the change in structure.
 
GUARANTOR CONDENSED CONSOLIDATING STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
Three Months Ended March 31, 2017
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
 
   
Consolidated
   
Eliminations
   
Tronox
Finance
LLC
   
Parent
Company
   
Guarantor
Subsidiaries
   
Non-
Guarantor
Subsidiaries
 
Net sales
 
$
569
     $
(65
)
   $
     $
     $
458
     $
176
 
Cost of goods sold
   
479
     
(64
)
   
     
     
396
     
147
 
Gross profit
   
90
     
(1
)
   
     
     
62
     
29
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
(74
)
   
1
     
     
(19
)
   
(46
)
   
(10
)
Income (loss) from operations
   
16
     
     
     
(19
)
   
16
     
19
 
Interest and debt expense, net
   
(46
)
   
     
(26
)
   
     
(1
)
   
(19
)
Intercompany interest income (expense)
   
     
     
     
5
     
(5
)
   
 
Other income (expense), net
   
(6
)
   
     
     
(3
)
   
2
     
(5
)
Equity in earnings of subsidiary
   
     
39
     
     
(17
)
   
(22
)
   
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
   
(36
)
   
39
     
(26
)
   
(34
)
   
(10
)
   
(5
)
Income tax benefit (provision)
   
(2
)
   
     
8
     
(7
)
   
(8
)
   
5
 
Net income (loss)
   
(38
)
   
39
     
(18
)
   
(41
)
   
(18
)
   
 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
   
3
     
3
     
     
     
     
 
Net income (loss) attributable to Tronox Limited
 
$
(41
)
   $
36
     $
(18
)
   $
(41
)
   $
(18
)
   $
 
 
GUARANTOR CONDENSED CONSOLIDATING STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2017
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
 
   
Consolidated
   
Eliminations
   
Tronox
Finance
LLC
   
Parent
Company
   
Guarantor
Subsidiaries
   
Non-
Guarantor
Subsidiaries
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
(38
)
   $
39
 
   $
(18
   $
(41
)
   $
(18
   $
 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
                                               
Foreign currency translation adjustments
   
24
     
(43
)
   
     
18
     
24
     
25
 
Pension and postretirement plans
   
1
     
(1
)
   
     
1
     
1
     
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative financial instruments
   
(2
)
   
2
     
     
(2
)
   
(2
)
   
 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
   
23
     
(42
)
   
     
17
     
23
     
25
 
Total comprehensive income (loss)
   
(15
)
   
(3
)
   
(18
   
(24
)
   
5
     
25
 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest:
                                               
Net income
   
3
     
3
     
     
     
     
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
   
6
     
6
     
     
     
     
 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
   
9
     
9
     
     
     
     
 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Tronox Limited
 
$
(24
)
   $
(12
)
   $
(18
   $
(24
)
   $
5
     $
25
 
 
GUARANTOR CONDENSED CONSOLIDATING BALANCE SHEETS
As of March 31, 2017
(Unaudited)
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
 
   
Consolidated
   
Eliminations
   
Tronox
Finance
LLC
   
Parent
Company
   
Guarantor
Subsidiaries
   
Non-
Guarantor
Subsidiaries
 
ASSETS
                                   
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
265
     $
     $
     $
10
     $
151
     $
104
 
Restricted cash
   
2
     
     
     
     
2
     
 
Accounts receivable, net
   
428
     
     
     
     
321
     
107
 
Inventories, net
   
510
     
(13
)
   
     
     
340
     
183
 
Other current assets
   
40
     
(528
)
   
101
     
69
     
198
     
200
 
Investment in subsidiaries
   
     
(1,449
)
   
     
1,127
     
322
     
 
Property, plant and equipment, net
   
1,816
     
     
     
     
1,299
     
517
 
Mineral leaseholds, net
   
1,606
     
     
     
     
1,230
     
376
 
Intercompany loans receivable
   
     
(2,523
)
   
1,149
     
     
158
     
1,216
 
Other long-term assets
   
255
     
     
     
     
223
     
32
 
Total assets
 
$
4,922
     $
(4,513
)
   $
1,250
     $
1,206
     $
4,244
     $
2,735
 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
                                               
Short-term debt
 
$
150
     
     
     
     
150
     
 
Other current liabilities
   
360
     
(528
)
   
48
     
92
     
536
     
212
 
Long-term debt
   
2,887
     
     
1,462
     
     
     
1,425
 
Intercompany loans payable
   
     
(2,523
)
   
     
121
     
2,365
     
37
 
Other long-term liabilities
   
381
     
     
     
2
     
198
     
181
 
Total liabilities
   
3,778
     
(3,051
)
   
1,510
     
215
     
3,249
     
1,855